ON JAVANESE LANGUAGE BANYUWANGI AND OSING LANGUAGE
Language is the basic form of communication to represent their feelings, thoughts, or ideas. We can communicate with others by using language only, whether verbal or non-verbal, in order to build social harmony. As the result, we are as human being use language for many kinds of reason most of the time. As the explanation of Prof. Mudjia Rahardjo about language and power, language is within the field of linguistics, while the power is the domain of politics. It is true when language is just meant as arbitrary vocal symbol dealing with meanings, and word and the sentence constructions as defined by structural linguists.1
In this analysis, the researcher uses the language varieties to analyze the data. Whether or not you think you speak a standard variety of English (language), you will certainly speak with an accent. It is a myth some speakers have accents while others do not.2 Some speakers may have distinct or easily recognized types of accent while others do not; but every language user speaks with an accent.
The term accent, when used technically, is restricted to the description of aspects of pronunciation which identify where an individual speaker is from, regionally or socially. It is to be distinguished from the term dialect that describes features of grammar and vocabulary, as well as aspects of pronunciation. The existence of different regional a dialect is widely recognized and often the source of some humor for those living in different regions. Dialectal diversity develops when people are separated geographically and socially. The changes that occur in the language spoken in one area or group do not necessarily spread to another.3 Thus in Banyuwangi, someone from Osing area may joke with Osing language with special jokes, and also will be different if they are talking or joking with other Javanese people, they will use their own language that usual to be used. In the following part, the researcher will mix between the Osing language and Javanese language that the historical of them is similar and quite similar in phonological, morphological and may the meaning of the words of those languages.
Hudson (1980, p.24) defines a variety of a language as “a set of linguistic items with similar distribution”, a definition that allows one to say that al of the following are varieties. The definition also allows us “to treat all the languages of some multilingual speaker, or community, as a single variety, since all the linguistic items concerned have a similar social distribution”.4
The number of native Banyuwangi often called as "Lare Using" is estimated at 500 thousand inhabitants and automatically become supporters of this Osing Java language speech. Native Language-Osing Java is spread mainly in the central district of Banyuwangi, covers Sub Kabat, Rogojampi, Glagah, Kalipuro, Srono, Songgon, Cluring, Giri, part of the town of Banyuwangi, Gambiran, Singojuruh, some tiles, and the District of Greasy. Territory inhabited by citizens of the rest of Java language dialect easterlies Java (Java language easterlies or Suroboyoan) or the language of Madura. In addition to Banyuwangi, speakers of these languages can also be found in the district of Jember, East Kradjan especially in Hamlet, Village Glundengan, District Wuluhan, Jember. However Osing dialect in the region has been heavily influenced Jember Javanese and Madurese due keterisolasiannya Osing speakers from other regions in Banyuwangi.
In Banyuwangi, there are many tribes that still exist and spread in all places in Banyuwangi; as Osing, Javanese, Madurist, Chinese, and others. Those tribes have different languages although some of the words have similarities; as Javanese and Osing, Yet, the way the people speak is diverged as they have their own style and idiolect. Osingist tends to speak with firm tone while Javanese people tend to speak with slow tone. Below is the list of several different and similarity words of Javanese and Osing (Javanese) speech level which convey the same meaning.
Sun / hun
Siro / rico
Maem / madang
Tibo / temebluk
Kandanono / kandakno
Those words above are frequently used in daily conversation, excluding some other words. Phonologically, some Javanese Banyuwangi words are totally different from Osing’s such as awakmu, awakku, teko, duwur, etc. Yet some are quite similar such as sesok, warai, duwur, etc. Likewise, the use is also different if combined with other words for instance, to ask the condition of Javanese people will say “Piye kabarmu?” while Osingist will say “klendai kabar iro?”. If the Javanese want to clarify or something that unbelievable other speaker’s statement of something, they will say “kok iso ngono?” and osingist will say “endyane ta gedigu?”. For certain case, Javanese people will utter the same word to express different idea for example; Kediri people will say “ayo madang le” to reveal point of departure and destination of traveling, while Osingist will say “ayo madyang?”
Osing language is a dialect of Javanese spoken in the area of Banyuwangi, East Java. The word comes from the word tusing Osing in the Balinese language, the language of neighboring regions, which means "no."
The variant of Osing Java language has many similarities and have the vocabulary of Old Javanese language which is still lagging. But in the Banyuwangi region itself there are variations of use and kekunaan also seen in situ. Variants are considered to have primary Kunoan region "giri", "Glagah" and "Smooth", where there Osing language is still considered pure. While the Java language Osing in Jember regency has heavily influenced the language of Java and Madura. And the pronunciation is different from the Java language Osing in Banyuwangi.
Among people in Osing, there are two styles of language to each other apparently unrelated. Namely Ways and Means Besiki Osing. Osing is a stylish way language is used in everyday life, and do not know the shape-Krama ngoko languages like Java in general. Which is distinctive pronouns, adjusted for the other person's position, for example:
Wis madhyang Siro? = You've eaten?*
Wis madhyang Riko? = You've eaten?**
* Hiro o / iro = used to speak with a younger (age)
Siro o = used to speak with the same level (age)
** o Riko = used to speak with the high level (age)
o Ndiko = used to speak with parents (father / mother)
While Besiki mode is a form of "Smooth Java" which is regarded as an ideal form of speech. but its use is not like the Java community, Besiki mode is only used for special conditions of the religious and ritual, as well as for the meeting before marriage.
Osing Java language is rooted vocabulary directly from the old Javanese language, in which many ancient words are still found there, in addition, the influence of Balinese are also some significant looks in this language. For example the vocabulary sing (not) and bojog (monkey).
The influence of English is also entered into the language through the landlords who had lived in the area, as in words:
Sulung comes from so long means I’m first!
Nagud comes from no good means bad / ugly
Ngepos comes from word pause means stop
Kekel comes from word cackle means laugh loudly
Enjong comes from the word enjoy means relax, delicious, fun
The pronunciation of “Using” language has uniqueness when said, because there are some differences with other local language, as:
The diphthong [ai] for the vowel [i]: all lexicon ending in "i" in the Java language in particular Osing Banyuwangi always terlafal "ai". Like for example, "Geni" unreadable "genai", "bengi" unreadable "bengai", "gedigi" (here) read "gedigai".
The diphthong [au] for the vowel [u]: lexicon ending in "u" is almost always read "au '. Like "gedigu" (so) read "gedigau", "asu" unreadable "asau", "AWU" unreadable "awau".
Pronunciation of consonants [k] for consonants [q]. In the Java language, especially in the lexicon ending in the letter "k" is always pronounced with a glottal "q". While the Java language Osing, it still read "k", which means velar glottal stop. among other "slick" unreadable "slick", "Manuk", read "Manuk" and so forth.
Glottal consonants [q] that in fact there is no Java language such as words [piro '], [kiwo'] and so on.
Palatalization [y]. In Osing Java language, which often appear in the lexicon contains a [ba], [pa], [da], [wa]. As "Bapak" is pronounced "byapak", "Uwak" is pronounced "uwyak", "grandparent" is pronounced "embyah", "Banyuwangi" is pronounced "byanyuwangai", "dhawuk" read "dyawuk '
2 Yule, George. 1996. The study of language. Cambridge University Press. Page 227
3 Fromkin, Victorian. Rodman, Robert. Hyams, Nina. An introduction to language – sevent edition. US: Thomson Wardswort. Page 447
4 Wardaugh. Ronald. 1986. An introduction to sociolinguistics. USA: Basil Blackwell. Page 22